Best Commentaries on Paul, with Nijay Gupta: Romans

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Nijay K. Gupta, associate professor of New Testament at Portland Seminary (PhD, University of Durham) is beginning a blog series at theLAB on biblical commentaries on the Pauline epistles. Dr. Gupta has written three commentaries (Colossians, 1-2 Thessalonians, Lord’s Prayer), and he has another commentary in production (Philippians, Cambridge University Press, co-written with Michael F. Bird), and is currently writing the Galatians volume for the Story of God commentary series. You can follow Gupta’s personal blog @

Paul’s letter to the Romans is one of the most discussed pieces of literature in all of history. This is a testimony both to Paul’s influence as well as to the impact Romans itself has had on Christianity and Western history. Here is a breakdown of some of the best commentaries for Romans. Look for the “Own It” suggestion at the end of most categories!

Don’t Neglect “Older” Commentaries

I often see on social media that pastors are eager to buy the “latest” Christian leadership book or commentary. I get it. I also get giddy for new books, but there are some classic modern and pre-critical commentaries on Romans that are invaluable.

In this first post in the series, I will just make a blanket statement saying that it is always helpful to look at St. John Chrysostom’s homilies on biblical texts, which often feel like devotional/sermon-like commentaries. Also, where possible check out Augustine, Theodoret of Cyrus, Theodore Mopsuestia, and Ambrosiaster. A helpful resource is IVP’s Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture series. Of the Reformation writers, I always consult Calvin (even though I am “Wesleyan!”), who wrote spectacular commentaries.

When it comes to important Romans commentaries written before 1980, Karl Barth wrote a brilliant Romans commentary (ET 1968), courting controversy with his focus on the theological interpretation of the letter. At that time, most commentaries were primarily historical notes and word studies, but Barth dropped this bomb of a commentary in their midst. It is not stuffy or esoteric, but eminently readable and inspirational. Less methodically controversial, but equally volatile, is the commentary by German Lutheran NT theologian Ernst Kasemann.

Technical Commentaries

(in-depth engagement with Greek text; for scholars and pastors with advanced training in language and exegetical methods)

Just by way of warning, to make these blog posts readable, my comments are selective, not comprehensive. There have been over 100 Romans commentaries published in the last 25 years!

James D. G. Dunn (WBC). This two-volume set offers a “New Perspective” interpretation of Romans, but Dunn’s verse-by-verse study of the Greek text showcases his exegetical and theological brilliance far beyond the singular NPP/OPP debate. (If you want a quick guide to the NPP, see Nijay Gupta, “Paul, New Perspective on” Lexham Bible Dictionary)

Robert Jewett (Hermeneia). Famously, Jewett worked on this commentary for a quarter of a century. His expertise is in socio-historical contextualization of biblical texts. The series is critically acclaimed—and this volume is very important indeed—but pastors should know the Hermeneia series is self-described as non-confessional and does not generally take interest in modern application (though there are occasional exceptions).

Richard Longenecker (NIGTC). This is a massive in-depth study of the Greek text of Romans. Longenecker is widely respected and known to be fair and balanced in his exegetical decisions. Longenecker sticks close to focusing on interpreting the text and not crossing swords with other commentators or Pauline theologians much.

Douglas Moo (NICNT). Now in its second edition, this is widely-known and appreciated as a carefully researched commentary with attention to the Greek text, but also offers Moo’s perspective on key issues in Pauline theology. Moo presents and defends a traditional/Reformational approach to Romans.

Own it: Dunn

Semi-Technical Commentaries

(some interaction with the Greek text; aimed at pastors)

C. K. Barrett (BNTC). If you haven’t read Barrett, he is wise, articulate, and fair. He is from a bit of an earlier generation of scholarship, so he does not weigh in on 21st century theological debates. Still, his sermon-like writing style is winsome and inspirational.

Frank Matera (Paideia).Matera has excellent exegetical sensibilities and this series includes a nice (albeit brief) set of theological reflections at the end of each segment of commentary. If you have trouble following Paul’s flow of thought in Romans, Matera comes to the rescue.

N. T. Wright (NIB). At 700 pages, this can seem like an intimidating commentary, but Wright has an engaging writing style. In some ways he represents the New Perspective on Paul, but the best way to explain it is this: “Wright is Wright” (often brilliant, but not always right).

Craig Keener (NCCS). Keener’s expertise is putting Paul’s writings in ancient context. He is objective at all times (perhaps to a fault! Get angry, Doc!). He is a great counter-balance to both Moo and Wright, like a scholarly referee. ????

Own it: Wright

[Hmmmm….I have recommended commentaries by Dunn, Barrett, and Wright, all of whom were living near Durham while I was there…what a strange coincidence]

Non-Technical Commentaries

(easy to read for laypeople)

Michael Bird (Story of God). It’s just fun to read MFB. He’s clever, he’s witty, and has many flashes of interpretive brilliance. He often bridges OPP and NPP and he brings a non-American (Australian) perspective to the study of Paul.

Paul Achtemeier (Interpretation). This is not quite a commentary, but almost like a series of theological lectures on Romans. Still, Achtemeier is a deep thinker and great communicator representing a more mainline perspective.

Douglas Moo (NIVAC). This is a much smaller and more devotional version of his big commentary. This series includes ample reflection on modern application.

Own it: Bird

Hidden Gems

(these are recommendations that you will get from me, but often overlooked or forgotten by others)

J. P. Burns (The Church’s Bible). Burns offers excerpts and explanations of how the Church Fathers read and interpreted Romans.

Where are the Women and People of Color?

Yes, I noticed that too. In the arena of Romans commentaries, sadly there is not much out there in print, but that is changing. Beverly Gaventa is writing what I expect will be the new elite commentary on Romans. The prospect of reading women and PoC is much better in other Pauline texts (for reasons I cannot fully explain).

I imagine Pauline scholarship is going to look a lot different in ten years, especially thanks to increasing support for women/PoC in doctoral programs and tenured jobs, as well as intentional interest from academic publishers.

Written by
Nijay Gupta
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  • These couple of series on this blog have been incredible. Thank you for your time and expertise!

  • Durham also nobly represented by Cranfield (ICC or Shorter) – dated now, but has been a constant and fruitful conversation partner throughout my ministry.

  • Your categories are very helpful. Other commentary surveys may have technical, semi-technical and non-technical, or something similar. But to my delight you added “Don’t Neglect “Older” Commentaries,” and “Hidden Gems.” I share your enthusiasm for Chrysostom, and was glad to see you employ the adjective “spectacular” regarding Calvin’s offerings. I have said much the same about Karl Barth as your “eminently readable and inspirational,” and never regret time spent in his writings, though many seem to shy away from or neglect him.

  • This is good list of suggestions. Given the number of commentaries on Romans, we could all create somewhat different lists. As I am now in chapter 11 of preaching consecutively through Romans – I would like to add two suggestions:

    C.E.B. Cranfield’s 2 volume commentary has been immensely helpful to me. This is really a model of commentary writing. Even in the places where I disagree with him, Cranfield is so fair and balanced that he really helps the reader work through the text.

    I have also found Michael Middendorf’s recent two volume commentary (2013 and 2016) to be quite helpful. It is also nice to be able to interact with a scholar writing from a conservative Lutheran point of view (I’m Reformed). I’ve noticed that the scholarship of contemporary Lutherans is largely ignored by evangelicals – and I would broadly commend the Concordia Commentary series as worthy of any pastor’s consideration.


  • I would also add Joseph Fitzmyer in the AB series. He is always well worth reading.

  • Unfortunately, it’s not available in Logos, but have you read Adolf Schlatter’s commentary on Romans?

  • I haven’t had the time to work in Romans for a while, but I remember the first time I used Friedrich Philippi’s work. I was blown away. It’s one of the older work, from T&T Clark’s Foreign Theological Library, a series I highly treaure.

  • I’m glad to see that I own some of the commentaries that you have suggested. Keener is one of my favorites scholars so I’m very happy to see his work included.

  • May I recommend A. Katherine Grieb’s The Story of Romans: A Narrative Defense of God’s Righteousness. While it is not a “technical commentary” she covers Romans 1-16 in prose style. It is insightful, refreshing, and a pleasure to read.

Written by Nijay Gupta