A Biblical Theology Study Bible


Like perhaps the majority of Christians of my generation, my first Bible was an NIV. It was given to me when I became a Christian 10 years ago, but I very quickly abandoned it for an NASB. And not too long after that, I abandoned the NASB for the ESV and for the last seven years it has been my translation of choice. Its the translation Ive used for devotions and Bible study; its the translation in which I’ve memorized scores of paragraphs and chapters, and even several books. I’ve so exclusively used the ESV that when I translate Greek (including non-biblical passages), it sounds like an ESV rendering. And I had never had a desire to go back to the NIV until recently.

So what could make someone extremely partial to literal translations and biased against the NIV give it another chance?* A new study Bible. Typically I dont notice study Bibles because theyre a dime a dozen, but the one that caught my attention is a game-changer. Its the new NIV Zondervan Study Bible edited by D. A. Carson. Anything written or edited by Carson is worth considering, but what truly sets this study Bible apart is that the introductions, study notes, and articles are all written from the perspective of biblical theology. There is no other study Bible centered on biblical theology; neither is there a one-volume Bible commentary with the notes written from a biblical-theological perspective. This makes the new NIV Zondervan Study Bible an utterly unique and valuable resource.

The NIV Zondervan Study Bible is to biblical theology what the ESV Study Bible is to systematic theology. 53348Its just as massive (and might be just a hair bigger!) with comparably robust and comprehensive introductions, study notes, and articles. Whereas many of the articles in the ESV Study Bible address topics in systematic theology, the articles in the NIV Zondervan Study Bible succinctly and accessibly trace how various key biblical-theological themes progressively unfold throughout Scripture. There are 25 such articles (after three that orient the reader to the storyline of the Bible and the task of biblical theology) tracing themes such as creation, covenant, temple, sacrifice, sonship, holiness, wrath, Gospel, and consummation, by eminent biblical scholars and theologians such as D. A. Carson, Henri Blocher, T. D. Alexander, Brian Rosner, Graham Cole, and Douglas Moo.

For me the timing of the arrival of this study Bible was perfect. This fall Im taking D. A. Carson’s Biblical Theology and Interpretation course in which each lecture is spent tracing a biblical-theological theme. Most of the themes covered in this course have an article dedicated to it in the NIV Zondervan Study Bible, so before each class session I read the relevant article after careful readings of the biblical passages, as well as the study notes for those Scriptures.

Our next class session will unfold the theme of sonship, and the article on sonship in the NIV Zondervan Study Bible is written by my professor. Dr. Carson begins by providing the socio-cultural context of sonship in the ancient world and then traces sonship in the Bible from Adam to the people Israel to the Davidic king and ultimately to the vision in Revelation 21: “he who is victorious will inherit all this, and I will be his God and he will be my son.” Dr. Carson draws the article to its expected conclusion by focusing on Christ as the unique son of God, the true Israel, and the true Davidic king.

I can see lovers of the ESV Study Bible also appreciating the NIV Zondervan Study Bible. It is of a similar scholarly caliber but entirely complementary, both in Bible translation as well as in the perspective and approach of the supplementary materials. But the audience of this new NIV study Bible will be much wider, not only because the NIV is the most widely read English translation, but also because the notes and articles are a bit more accessible than those of the ESV Study Bible. Whereas those not inclined to theology sometimes find the ESV Study Bible a bit difficult and “heady”, the NIV Zondervan Study Bibles notes and articles can be easily understood and appreciated by any serious student of the Bible. And this is a study Bible that any serious student of the Bible should own because its biblical-theological focus will help us be better readers of Scripture, able to see how the parts fit into a coherent whole and able to trace the grand themes that run from Genesis to Revelation.

Get the NIV Zondervan Study Bible or just the Study Bible notes, if you already have the NIV translation in Logos.

*For an excellent reflection on Bible translation and the NIV, check out CBT chair Douglas Moo’s paper from the NIV 50th Anniversary celebration dinner at last year’s ETS Annual Meeting: “We Still Don’t Get It: Evangelicals and Bible Translation Fifty Years After James Barr” (video | pdf).

Studying Greek with Jennifer Guo

In NT Greek Exegesis I this semester we are working through the Epistle to the Colossians. This is my favorite course of the semester not only because of what happens in the classroom, Jennifer Guobut also because of what preparation entails. Don’t get me wrong — I love biblical and systematic theology. But my greatest academic affection has always been for studying the New Testament, and from my earliest days as a Christian I was inductively studying books of the NT verse-by-verse, consulting choice commentaries after my own studies.

Since I’m a neophyte when it comes to Koine Greek and the Greek New Testament, reading, translating, and attempting to exegete the text is still a new and exciting (albeit at times difficult and frustrating) experience. As I prepare the text for each class session, I have found my Logos library to be an invaluable resource. I’d like to briefly share what resources I’m using and how I’m studying because it might be helpful both for those taking an exegesis course (whether in Colossians or a different section of the NT) as well as those who have had Greek in the past and would like to keep their Greek sharp as they study a book of the NT. A screenshot of my layout is below.

JGUO post

You can see that I have both the Passage Guide and the Exegetical Guide open in one section. In the other, I have my Bibles and commentaries; of course, you can choose your preferred translations and commentaries. After reading straight through the Greek text a few times, the first thing I do is note which words I do not know and incorporate them into my flashcard system; I love that I can just hover over the words and the glosses show up on the bottom of the screen. Then I go through the text again and parse. Here your specific approach can change depending on your facility with the language and what you need practice with. Because I don’t have much practice with Greek, at first I parsed every word. Then I only parsed forms that weren’t as obvious/familiar to me. Now, I pretty much only parse verbs. Logos is great for parsing practice because when you hover over a word you can immediately see the parsing, so you can check yourself as you go.

After parsing I translate the text and then read it in the NASB as a comparison because that is a fairly literal translation. I also have the ESV in my layout because 1) it’s my favorite translation and 2) it’s less literal and wooden than the NASB but is still a formal equivalence translation. Finally, I have the NIV as a colloquial translation. Specific versions can be chosen based on preference, but it’s good to consult several that cover the spectrum between formal and dynamic equivalence. Next, I attempt a syntax diagram and exegesis of the text.

Since as a newbie I’m not very good at syntax diagramming and exegesis yet, the most fun for me is in the last step: reading what others have to say. I first consult two Greek handbooks on The lettersColossians (not in picture because I don’t own them in Logos): Constantine Campbell’s Baylor Handbook and Murray Harris’s volume in the Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament series. Then I read the section in three commentaries: Moo’s volume in the Pillar New Testament Commentary, Dunn’s in the New International Greek Testament Commentary series, and O’Brien’s in the Word Biblical Commentary series. All three of these are widely regarded as among the best commentaries on Colossians/Philemon. 

For the purpose of regular study through the whole epistle I’ve capped myself at the resources I’ve described here, or else I’d need a week to study each verse! But for verses that are especially interesting as well as when I research for my exegetical paper, I’m consulting a host of other commentaries (such as F. F. Bruce’s volume in the New International Commentary on the New Testament) as well as making full use of the incredibly helpful Passage Guide and Exegetical Guide. I will probably blog on using those features at the end of the semester after writing my exegetical paper. 

Why is the Supernatural Realm Unseen?

One of the main ideas presented in The Unseen Realm is a mosaic of Scripture that employs the worldview of an ancient Israelite to better understand the context of the Bible. Insights and new understanding is revealed when we read the Bible from the perspective of its authors and intended audience, a perspective that includes a full picture of the supernatural realm. Why has this perspective fallen by the wayside in modern Christianity?

Here’s what Dr. Heiser has to say about why it’s so important to recover this ancient worldview.
Note: the following is adapted from Chapter 2 of The Unseen Realm.


Modern Christianity suffers from two serious shortcomings when it comes to the supernatural world.

First, many Christians claim to believe in the supernatural but think (and live) like skeptics. We find talk of the supernatural world uncomfortable. This is typical of denominations and evangelical congregations outside the charismatic movement—in other words, those from a background like the one I grew up in.

There are two basic reasons why noncharismatics tend to close the door on the supernatural world. One is their suspicion that charismatic practices are detached from sound exegesis of Scripture. As a biblical scholar, it’s easy for me to agree with that suspicion—but over time it has widely degenerated into a closed-minded overreaction that is itself detached from the worldview of the biblical writers.

The other reason is less self-congratulatory. The believing church is bending under the weight of its own rationalism, a modern worldview that would be foreign to the biblical writers. Traditional Christian teaching has for centuries kept the unseen world at arm’s length. We believe in the Godhead because there’s no point to Christianity without it. The rest of the unseen world is handled with a whisper or a chuckle.

The second serious shortcoming is evident within the charismatic movement: the elevation of experience over Scripture. While that movement is predisposed to embrace the idea of an animate spiritual world, its conception of that world is framed largely by experience and an idiosyncratic reading of the book of Acts.

Those two shortcomings, while seemingly quite different, are actually born of the same fundamental, underlying problem: Modern Christianity’s view of the unseen world isn’t framed by the ancient worldview of the biblical writers. One segment wrongly consigns the invisible realm to the periphery of theological discussion. The other is so busy seeking some interaction with it that it has become unconcerned with its biblical moorings, resulting in a caricature.

I’m concerned about both shortcomings, but since this book derives from my own story, the problem of the Christian skeptic hits closer to home and is my greater concern.

If your background, like mine, is in the evangelical, noncharismatic branch of Protestantism, perhaps you consider yourself an exception to the patterns I’ve identified, or think that I’ve overstated the situation. But what would you think if a Christian friend confided to you that he believed he had been helped by a guardian angel, or that he had audibly heard a disembodied voice warning him of some danger? What if your friend claimed to have witnessed demonic possession, or was convinced that God had directed her life through a dream that included an appearance of Jesus?

Most of us noncharismatics would have to admit that our initial impulse would be to doubt. But we actually have a less transparent reflex. We would nod our head and listen politely to our friend’s fervent story, but the whole time we would be seeking other possible explanations. That’s because our modern inclination is to insist on evidence. Since we live in a scientific age, we are prone to think these kinds of experiences are actually emotional misinterpretations of the events—or, worse, something treatable with the right medication. And in any individual case, that might be so—but the truth is that our modern evangelical subculture has trained us to think that our theology precludes any experience of the unseen world. Consequently, it isn’t an important part of our theology.

My contention is that, if our theology really derives from the biblical text, we must reconsider our selective supernaturalism and recover a biblical theology of the unseen world. This is not to suggest that the best interpretation of a passage is always the most supernatural one. But the biblical writers and those to whom they wrote were predisposed to supernaturalism. To ignore that outlook or marginalize it will produce Bible interpretation that reflects our mind-set more than that of the biblical writers.


Discover how The Unseen Realm reveals the ancient worldview of the Bible. Get The Unseen Realm now!UnseenRealm-Blog-600x100-1

Starting Seminary with Jennifer Guo

Hi, my name is Jennifer Guo and a few weeks ago I started the Jennifer GuoMDiv program at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. Logos asked me to chronicle my seminary experience, so this blog series will be an account of all aspects of my seminary journey, from the interesting discoveries I make using Logos, to stimulating things I’m learning, to my personal experiences as an MDiv student. Here’s a bit about how I got here and what my first semester looks like.

Though I have been serving consistently in ministry—and reading voraciously in biblical and theological studies for the majority of my ten years as a Christian—I never felt called to pursue vocational ministry or formal theological education until recently. The call to seminary came just as I had settled into a career in finance using my MS in accountancy, making the decision to pursue seminary a very scary step for me. Getting here has been a journey of faith, and I have been learning to trust God in new ways.

But it hasn’t all been gloom and doom! The process has been fun and exciting as I anticipate studying with many of the scholars who line my bookshelves. Once it became clear to me that I was supposed to be at TEDS, I decided to teach myself beginning Greek to try to test into NT Greek Exegesis I. Usually students without undergraduate Greek coursework take eight credit hours of beginning Greek that don’t count as graduate credits and are not part of the degree programs. However, I hoped to test right into exegesis because it would save a lot of money and would also enable me to start NT canon courses sooner.

Before choosing my study materials for my Greek self-study, I briefly considered the debates about Greek pedagogy and pronunciation; while I could see the advantages of a living language approach and Modern or Reconstructed Koine pronunciation, I decided to go traditional and use Mounce’s classic The Basics of Biblical Greek Basics of Greek(both the grammar and the workbook). Then it was just a matter of disciplined study and consistent review. I would have also liked to work through Wallace’s Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, but I didn’t have the time; thus I was very nervous about the exam and felt inadequately prepared.

When I received the results of the placement exam three days before the semester started I was thrilled—not only did I pass but I tested into Dr. Constantine Campbell’s exegesis sequence. TEDS has a stellar NT faculty and it would be a great privilege to study Greek under any of them, but I was particularly excited about the opportunity to study NT Greek from a cutting-edge scholar in the field.

My schedule this semester comprises a veritable “who’s who” of contemporary biblical and theological scholarship: in addition to NT Greek Exegesis with Dr. Campbell I’m also taking Systematic Theology I with Kevin Vanhoozer, Biblical Theology and Interpretation with D. A. Carson, American Church History with Scott Manetsch, and Elementary Hebrew. But it’s also a great time to be at Trinity in general: the school recently received a $1 million grant to launch the Center for Transformational Churches as well as a $3.4 million grant to study the doctrine of creation within evangelical theology. Additionally, this year’s Kantzer Lectures in Revealed Theology entitled “God, Evil, and Possibility” will be delivered by Henri Blocher.

I look forward to sharing with you some of what I’m reading, learning, and experiencing over the course of the next three years. If you’d like to connect with me elsewhere, you can follow me on Twitter and check out my personal blog.

Quit Hiding, It’s Just the Apocrypha

hiding_1024x512“There is still quite a perception of extra-canonical literature as not just non-canonical but somehow dangerous,” says Dr. David deSilva in an interview for the Mobile Ed Conversations podcast. “And that’s a prejudice I have worked long and hard to combat.”

Dr. deSilva goes on to explain the importance of extra-canonical literature—how students in his classroom receive it, and why he’s so passionate about it. He also provides some tips on where to start if you’re interested in studying apocryphal texts for the first time.

Dr. David A. deSilva is the trustees’ distinguished professor of New Testament and Greek at Ashland Theological Seminary. He’s written over 20 books in the areas of New Testament and Second Temple Judaism and is a leading expert on the cultural world of the New Testament.

Earn a Graduate Diploma in New Testament

ATS-Logo-RGB Dr. deSilva’s Mobile Ed courseware on the Apocrypha (BI291) and The Cultural World of the New Testament (NT201) are being included in Ashland Seminary’s new online Graduate Diploma in New Testament. This enables students to learn remotely and earn graduate-level credit they can use toward a master’s degree.

The program consists of five master’s-level courses incorporating presentations by Ashland faculty, group discussions, webinars, course readings, and assessments while also utilizing Mobile Ed courseware and the Logos Bible Software Gold base package.

The courses focus on engaging the texts and contexts of Scripture, developing a solid foundation in New Testament studies, and encountering the words behind our English translations. Students will also have the opportunity to explore specific topics of interest by choosing from a list of electives.

Register Today

The Graduate Diploma in New Testament program begins October 3, 2015. Visit Ashland’s website to learn more and register today!

Scott Tunseth Discusses Fortress’ New Annotated Luther Series

Fortress Press just released the first two volumes of a new series named The Annotated Luther.

In this video, Fortress reference editor Scott Tunseth discusses the vision, scope, and context of this exciting new series that serves both new students and seasoned scholars.

Pre-order the first two volumes of The Annotated Luther series today!

Don’t forget to place your bid on The Precious and Sacred Writings of Martin Luther.

How Do You Handle Odd or Strange Passages in the Bible?

The Unseen Realm by Dr. Michael Heiser UnseenRealm-Blog-300x300 is out now! Discover how The Unseen Realm illuminates Scripture today!

A few weeks ago, while Dr. Darrell Bock was in town filming for Logos Mobile Education, we had Michael Heiser sit down with him to discuss the origin of The Unseen Realm and the most important points found in the book. Watch the full, 26-minute interview below.

“If it’s weird, it’s important”

In The Unseen Realm, Dr. Heiser digs into some of the strangest passages in the Bible to illuminate how each of them plays a part in the greater biblical narrative. Because these passages are so odd, we often assume they’re too peripheral to matter. Here’s how Dr. Heiser addresses this obstacle to understanding the unseen realm.

Note: the following is adapted from Chapter 2 of The Unseen Realm.


Sometime after we moved to Wisconsin for my doctoral work, my wife and I found a church that felt as if it might become our new church home. The pastor had a degree from a well-known seminary. His first two sermons from 1 Peter were filled with solid exposition. I was excited about the prospects. By our third visit, he had reached 1 Peter 3:14–22 in his sermon series, a very odd passage that’s also one of my favorites. What happened next is etched on my memory. The pastor took the pulpit and announced with complete sincerity, “We’re going to skip this section of 1 Peter since it’s just too strange.” We didn’t visit again.

I’ve seen this sort of evasion more than once. Usually it’s not as dramatic. Pastors don’t typically tell their people to skip part of the Bible. The more common strategy for “handling” strange passages is more subtle: Strip the bizarre passage of anything that makes it bizarre. The goal is to provide the most ordinary, comfortable interpretation possible.

This strategy is ironic to say the least. Why is it that Christians who would strenuously defend a belief in God or the virgin birth against charges that they are unscientific or irrational don’t hesitate to call out academic SWAT teams to explain away “weird” biblical passages? The core doctrines of the faith are themselves neither ordinary nor a comfortable fit with empirical rationalism.

The odds are very high that you’ve never heard that Psalm 82 plays a pivotal role in biblical theology (including New Testament theology). I’ve been a Christian for over thirty years and I’ve never heard a sermon on it. There are many other passages whose content is curious or “doesn’t make sense” and so are abandoned or glossed over.

In this book, I’ll be offering my take on many “strange passages.” Other scholars have done the same. But if mine are different, it’s because they grow out of the perspective of the mosaic. They don’t exist in isolation from other passages. They have explanatory power in more than one place.

My point is not to suggest that we can have absolute certainty in interpretation everywhere in the Bible. No one, including the present writer, is always right about what every passage means. I have a firm grasp of my own lack of omniscience. (So does my wife, for the record.) Rather, my contention in this book is that if it’s weird, it’s important. Every passage plays a coherent role in the mosaic whole.


Discover how The Unseen Realm illuminates the strange and wonderful view of the world the Bible offers. Get The Unseen Realm now!


Hey Bro: HiDef Mondays

The following is excerpted from the forthcoming High Definition Commentary: James. It is a sidebar about the linguistic implications of adopting (or rejecting) gender-inclusive language when NT writers directly address their audience. Should we stick with “brothers” or switch to something more inclusive?


There has been an ongoing, divisive debate about the merits of using gender-inclusive language in Bible translations. The debate stems from the frequent use of expressions like ἀδελφοί μου “my brothers” in James 1:2 to address both male and female members of the audience. There is little doubt that these expressions were considered gender-neutral to the original audience. But the open question is how such expressions will be understood today. Are they still gender-neutral, or do they convey chauvinistic overtones? Some argue this common expression should be translated as “my brothers and sisters” so as to explicitly include both genders, as we see in the NIV 2011. Others argue that any such change we might make represents a disregard for the authority of the text. Both of these are valid points, but is there some way forward that respects both? The answer to this question will influence how we read and teach a book like James based on the number of times expressions like this crop up. Although this matter has some complexities, there is indeed a way forward.

Required Uses

We can divide the uses of direct address like “my brothers” into two types: those that are needed to know “who did what to whom,” and those that are not needed. For instance in Ephesians 5:22, 25; 6:1, 4, 5, and 9, Paul directly addresses subgroups of the audience; the direct address signals the switch from the church to wives, then to husbands, to children, to slaves, and then to masters. Without the direct address, we would have a difficult time recognizing Paul’s switch to some new sub-group of addressees. These are examples of required uses of direct address; they are “mission-critical” to the text and cannot be changed. Admittedly there are a few instances where one could make a case for or against the need for direct address, but the important thing to recognize is that there are linguistic criteria to guide such usage.

“Extracurricular” Uses

Believe it or not, these necessary uses of direct address represent only a minority of all uses. The majority of direct addresses found in the NT are not semantically required. So then what are these other uses of direct address accomplishing? A good many help us identify boundaries in the discourse. When the NT was originally written, there were no conventions like punctuation, paragraph breaks, or chapter divisions to help readers know where to divide the text. Redundant forms of direct address are one means writers could use to signal such boundaries. How? Think about how the semantically required addresses operate. Forms of direct address like “wives,” “husbands,” and “children” signaled the beginning of a new section addressing the new group of people. Using a generic form of address—one that doesn’t do anything to change the audience—is a natural extension of the same linguistic device. In colloquial English we use expressions like “bro,” “dude,” and “man” to do the same thing.

Another use of redundant address operates at a more local level. Instead of signaling a new paragraph, sometimes the expression is found in the middle of a sentence, as in James 1:2. This unneeded direct address creates a speed bump, delaying our reading of what lies on the other side. This delay results in anticipation or suspense, drawing extra attention to what is typically an important thematic statement. So instead of drawing attention to a new addressee or a new section of the discourse, this use in the middle of a clause draws attention to a something surprising or important.


If we consider the generic forms of direct address used in languages, most share an interesting trait: They are nearly always masculine. Why? Well, the masculine form of something is most often the generic one; it doesn’t limit the gender. I can talk about a female lion or female sheep but not about a male lioness or a male ewe. This isn’t linguistic chauvinism; it is simply an economy of language. It is easier to have one form serve double-duty (masculine and generic) than to have a third, androgynous form for generic references.

If we consider at how Greek hearers would have responded to “brothers,” or how modern English-speakers respond to “bro” or “dude,” it is doubtful that gender figures significantly into the processing of the term. Although in some communities women address each other as “sister,” more often I’ve heard women calling other women “dude” instead of “dudette” or “dudess.” Again, this has nothing to do with linguistic chauvinism and everything to do with the constraints and economy of language.

So how do we move forward in properly handling these generic forms of direct address in James? The call for changing to inclusive forms of address misunderstands the important distinction between required and redundant direct address. If you are going to change terminology—which is a completely legitimate choice—then be sure to choose something that does not create the impression that you are narrowing the audience down to an actual sub-group of people. Plural expressions like “folks,” “church,” or “family” can play that role, but may sound awkward at first. My preferred option when preaching is “folks” because most people are used to hearing it, but it omits the family overtone of “brothers.” Whatever you decide to do, keep in mind the reason these redundant forms were used, and do your best not to undermine their important function.

The Core Ideas in The Unseen Realm

The Unseen Realm, by Dr. Michael S. Heiser, is set to release on September 1. Dr. Heiser has outlined the core ideas of The Unseen Realm to give you a glimpse as to what the book is and is not. Check it out.

Note: this post was adapted from from this blog post, originally posted on Dr. Heiser’s personal blog.


First Things: What the Book is and is Not

This is not a book about angels and demons, though the supernatural characters of the Bible figure heavily into the material. Rather, the book:

  • Presents the mosaic of biblical theology from the perspective of ancient Israelite / first century Jewish writers predisposed to a supernaturalist worldview, with an eye toward how the intersection of the unseen world with our world affects how we understand the plan of God and our destiny as believers.
  • Establishes the pieces of that mosaic by means of peer-reviewed research, and makes the conclusions of that research readable and comprehensible.

The above is the (just over) thirty-second explanation of the book.

Core Ideas in the Unseen Realm

  1. Divine council
  • God’s family; God’s administration
  • God desires his divine and human imagers to together enjoy his presence, and he theirs.
  • God desires his divine and human imagers to obediently administer his affairs in their respective realms.
  1. Divine imaging
  • What it is; its intrinsic meaning
  1. Free-will rebellions by God’s imagers

Genesis 3

  • divine and human rebellion, leading to council expulsion and loss of human terrestrial immortality (=death)

Genesis 6:1-4

  • divine rebellion that leads to (not causes) human corruption

Genesis 11:1-9 / Deut. 32:8-9

  • Human rebellion that leads to (not causes) divine corruption
  1. Edenic Cost/ Loss
  • Halted the spread of Eden to all the earth (i.e., earth’s good but imperfect state not made Edenic; “chaos” not perfected)
  • Human immortality in God’s Edenic world
  • Harmony between the seen and unseen realms / divine imagers
  • Human membership in God’s home / administration (his council)
  1. Reversing the Effects of Free-Will Rebellions

Eden / Genesis 3

  • Divine presence returning to earth to dwell with God’s elect people
    • election is not a synonym for salvation
  • This is where the idea of restoring a divine, earthly kingdom must begin
  • Overcome the power of the original rebel (lord of the death); restore human immortality in God’s Edenic world

Genesis 6

  • Eradicate the hostile seed that arose because of the rebellion of the sons of God, which will stand against kingdom restoration
  • Restrain the spread of evil catalyzed by this event
    • Jewish theology of human depravity
    • Galatians 3:19ff. and the Law

Genesis 11 / Deut 32:8-9

  • Bless the nations that were disinherited
  • Claim human council members / believers from among the disinherited nations
  • Reclaim those nations under the authority of new sons of God (believers)
  • Destroy the gods of the nations who became rebellious and corrupt
  1. Ultimate Source for All These Points

Jesus Christ

  • Covenant maker (Word; Gen 15)
  • Law giver (Gal. 3:19 et al)
  • Key to secret messianic plan of redemption
  • Gospel to Gentiles / Pentecost
  • Our resurrection
  • Our perfect imager
  • Our brother-presenter in the council (Heb 2)
  • Judge of the gods at Day of the Lord


The Unseen Realm is set to release on September 1—learn more about how you can pre-order this book from Logos, Amazon, and Barnes & Noble at theunseenrealm.com.


The Purpose of Luke–Acts: Paul’s Exoneration

Andrew Pitt’s course NT316 Book Study: The Gospel of Luke is shipping on August 27. In the course, Dr. Pitts examines in detail the genre and purpose of Luke’s Gospel. He argues that Luke writes his Gospel, along with the book of Acts, as a political document meant to exonerate Paul who was imprisoned in Rome at the time. In the segment below, Dr. Pitts provides some evidence for this position:

NT316 Book Study: The Gospel of Luke is part of the 9-course Studies in the Gospels Bundle. This bundle is shipping on August 27, so order it today at the Pre-Pub price for 41% off!